The show Game of Spies reviews some espionage cases in the last 10 years in the US. Anna Chapman is one of them.
The FBI does not understand academic villages. They don’t understand that metadata in an academic village is as valuable as any metadata they gather on Tsarnaev types.
Academic metadata is citations, publications, academic conferences, etc. It is for the most part right out on the internet for anyone to read.
However, to understand it requires work and interest. The FBI are not interested in any village except their own. So they don’t learn the academic villages.
The academic villages extend into the employers and companies that hire from academic departments. So the FBI misses out on the entire network of technology and know-how transfer. So the FBI are almost worthless to prevent or even slow down know-how transfer.
The same applies to using personal information, much of it metadata as leverage. This happens routinely in academic and company villages. Yet the FBI can’t see it, because they are apathetic to learning any village but their own.
China’s academics like Russia’s work with their intel services. This lets them exploit metadata that is published and available to develop their own academic and post academic networks. This is the secret of their success.
This is what Kaptiza started in the 1920s. This is why Kaptiza was given privileges by Stalin. This continues to the present day to such persons as Valery Makarov and Albert Shiryaev.